Sangkuriang's Dream and Saguling Dam
This case describes a summary of the EIA studies conducted in the late 1970s for the Saguling dam project in Indonesia. The Saguling dam was constructed in the first half of the 1980s mainly for the generation of electricity, partially funded by the World Bank and Japan's OECF. The EIA studies done by the Indonesians were regarded as being satisfactory, even very successful, in the context of the developing country in the 1970s, by the donor institutions providing funds for the project. Despite this good reputation, discrepancies have emerged between what was expected to happen and what actually happened. Dr. Nakayama, a Japanese university professor, was commissioned to conduct a case study of the Saguling dam project, so that the Japanese government can draw lessons from this experiences to further improve EIA methodology and procedures for its foreign aid projects.
National Transport Training Center Project
-Planning project-type Technical Cooperation Project-
This case is based on an on-going project-type technical cooperation in the field of transport by JICA and the Philippines. The focus is on the planning stage. The proposed project is concerned with a training and research institute of transport planning and management, for which the Government of the Philippines had requested support seven years earlier. A Preliminary Survey Mission visited the country to study the existing preparations for the project, as JICA headquarters in Tokyo, to which the Mission has to report, considered that they could not start the project unless the "prerequisites" were fulfilled before the project started. The Mission members felt that it was high time to start because of the urgent needs and continued good will of Philippine counterparts to implement the project, although the prerequisites had not yet fulfilled. The cooperation for this project is included in the list for technical cooperation by JICA, following the decision by the Japanese Government, and a Preliminary Survey Mission has to suggest to JICA an outline plan for the project and what should be done afterward to implement it.
Mchelian Agriculture Project
The purpose of this case is to show how ideas concerning project evaluation can be applied. The case is based on a JICA technical cooperation project, Kilimanjaro Agriculture Development Project in Tanzania. Readers are required to think about:
1. how to evaluate a technical cooperation project; and
The case consists of two parts. In Part I, a young consultant is asked to join an evaluation mission for a very successful project, and she investigates the background of the project. In Part II, she leaves for the project site and finds out the real situation.
Let them die?
Professor Nakajima,Chairman of a ministry-appointed advisory panel on HIV/AIDS and a respected Japanese clinician, made the following public statement: "Spending taxpayers money to cover the medical costs of treating AIDS patients is like throwing money away. In Thailand, they pour their resources into prevention and let those who are already infected die." The statement was widely publicized by the press and so outraged AIDS victims and supporters that the Ministry of Health and Welfare dismissed Nakajima from the panel,criticizing him for his insensitivity and misunderstanding of victims of HIV infection.
Prof.Nozomi, a researcher trained in Japan, Thailand ,and the United States and currently involved in international training programs for AIDS prevention and care in Japan and Thailand, was not only offended by the insensitivity of the statement but also by the fact that the statement was grossly inaccurate. He had two major concerns about the wider effect of the statement:(1)there could be serious ramifications for the continuing debate in Japan about distributing health resources,i.e. care for the infected vs.prevention for the healthy; and(2) the complete misrepresentation of how Thailand dealt with the problems resulting from the HIV/AIDS infection and the implication that other countries,like Thailand,simply let people die who are infected, was unjust and would jeopardize valuable relationships between Japanese and Thai professionals.
These concerns created in Prof.Nozomi a crisis of conscience. He knew for a fact that Thailand's policy for handling HIV/AIDS victims was anything but insensitive. His colleagues and friends in Thailand would be offended and outraged if the Chairman's erroneous statement about their handling of the infection was not publicly corrected. However,any Japanese who criticized such a highly regarded physician in the medical society in Japan would face consequences that could severely and negatively affect his career and his standing among his peers. In the face of this dilemma,should Prof.Nozomi speak out or remain silent?
Managing a NGO
Eka is a memeber of a small, newly-founded NGO called Terakoya Support that is based in Tokyo and has 40 members. The objectives of Terakoya Support are to support are to support Japanese language courses in a temple-operated school, the Myanmar Buddhist Meditation Institute(the Institute) located in Yangon,as well as to facilitate exchange programs between Myanmar and Japanese young people. Although the Institute has supported several foreign language courses, the Japanese language courses have been taught by Japanese and Myanmar volunteers. The Japanese instructors are either businessmen or their spouses who live in the capital city of Myanmar but who have no professional training in teaching languages .
At the invitation of Ayano,the founder and representative of Terakoya Support and a former instructor at the Institute, Eka and her colleague Kuwata plan to visit the Institute in order to administer proficiency tests to the students. However, when Eka sends a letter about coordinating their visit to Serita, one of the volunteer Japanese instructors at the Institute, she was told by Serita that he was not interested in outsiders meddling in the program. As Ayano had taken a new job in Botswana and was unavailable for advice and counsel, Eka is feeling lost and is not sure what to do.
Run Before You Get Shot Down?
A young Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteer(JOCV) was sent to a remote rural village in Nepal for a two-and -one -half year project. She worked with a male Nepal volunteer counterpart as a team in one of the ten village sites of the rural community development Project. The Japanese experts, JOCV team leader, NGO Director, and Nepal government counterparts involved in the Project mostly stayed in their respective offices in the small city called Pokhara and visited the villages as necessary to support the development works to be carried out by the villagers facilitated by the JOCV members and NGO voulteers.
The JOCV and NGO volunteer tried to include the villagers in the planning for community development. However, a major conflict with the village chief erupted, who evidently insisted on deciding development priorities himself. Fearing that the villagers were supporting the young project volunteers, the village chief threatened the JOCV volunteer with a gun and told her to leave the village immediately. Even though he finally calmed down and withdrew his threat, the JOCV volunteer saw difficulties ahead. Nevertheless she wanted to continue her work until her team of service was completed.
Treat or Retreat? - Coordinating Education Aid
Ganbari Masho, a small country in Sub-Sahara Africa, suffers from a serious shortage of primary schools. The government has tried to make the most of all possible funding resources to improve this situation, however, the result is often uncoordinated and conflicted.
Manabu Minade, an educational development specialist working for Japan's government aid agency, visits Ganbari Masho to evaluate the grant aid assistance project funded by his agency for constructing primary school buildings. As a result of his survey, Minade realizes that more coordination among aid donors is necessary to accomplish effective assistance to the schools. During his visit, Minade had an opportunity to communicate his idea about aid coordination to the Secretary of Education, an official that Minade thinks is very intelligent and effective but someone who needs to be convinced about implementing a coordination policy. Minade is not sure what his recommendations would be for establishing a meeting among donors to discuss this issue. He realizes that there are many issues which need to be considered in order for his idea to accomplish its goal.
Squid Politics - over tiny but attractive stone
Dr. Misato, a professional fishery development consultant with more than ten years experience in Japanese development assistance projects, headed off for his assigned duty station. He was well prepared for the tasks and had established a good relationship with his counterparts. However, his research area was highly competitive and the target species, Argentine squid, was an important cash crop for several fishery industries. This competition created serious problems for the implementation of the scientific research projects originally planned. Misato was faced with a number of dilemmas which needed to be resolved.
Should NGOs go into Business Activities?
The case is based on a Thai NGO, the Isan Foundation, established in 1986 with assistance from a Canadian NGO for the purpose of implementing participatory community development projects in northeast Thailand. With assistance from Canadian funds, projects were established between 1988 to 1993 and the intention was to continue these projects after the Canadian funds were terminated. By 1996, the NGO recognized the need to diversify their funding base, i.e. obtain funding from government sources and other donors and undertake income producing activities. It became necessary to devise a five-year plan outlining proposed activities and projecting potential funding resources.
Up to this point, the NGO had help to establish village organizations such as village credit unions and rice banks in about 100 villages. Based on these organizations, several cooperatives were created. These village community organizations had successfully raised a significant amount of money which was used to support the socio-economic activities of its members.
Mr. Somchai, the manager of the NGO revolving fund, was responsible for creating a plan for the next five years. He came up with the idea of a "People's Bank" which would centralize the financial resources of the village groups. However, in order to make his plan viable, he had to make compromises in order to address the different interests of each of the various stakeholders.
Shall We Still Go On? -Troubled Two Step Loan-
The Global Bank (GB) had extended loan packages in two successive years to the Government of the Republic of East Indies (GEI) to finance a government-sponsored, two step loan project for the support and promotion of small business enterprises. After several years, problems emerged. The arrears of the loans made by the local banks were increasing with alarming frequency. After studies, reviews and surveys were conducted, it became clear that the project had some basic flaws in its design and implementation procedures. For example, the expertise and training of the officers of the handling banks resulted in poorly managed portfolios.
In order to cope with the situation, meetings were scheduled by the GB involving representatives from various government agencies and the Bank of East Indies (BEI). A plan of action was formulated to address the problems and hopefully, improve the quality of this loan program.
In spite of the problems and the fact that it was unlikely that the action plan could remedy the situation in the near future, the GEI approached the GB with another request for a loan package (twice the amount of the original package) to fund the next phase of the project. And it seemed, even though there were enormous costs involved, the prevailing attitude of the key people who would make this decision was to move forward with the request.
"Fair and Honest' Elections: What Does It Mean?"
Nozomi, a Japanese graduate student majoring in Latin American politics, has volunteered to be an electoral observer during the 1994 elections in La Esperanza. Although the country had had a democratic system for more than twenty years, elections held every four years always resulted in political and social chaos. For this election, the international community was asked to send electoral observers in an effort to help minimize the disruption.
The duties and responsibilities of an electoral observer were explained to Nozomi and the other participants. They were to report any irregular events they observed at the polling places. They were not to make judgements about these events, however. She thought this would not be too hard, but once election day was under way, the reality proved to be much more of a challenge. Events which seemed normal to her were viewed as irregular or intentional fraud by other observers. As the day wore on, she became increasingly unsure about what criteria one should use. She noticed that the criteria were different for each individual observer making the judgement.
After the election, the interpretation of electoral events was widely and differently interpreted and as a result, La Esperanza once again fell into chaos and disorder. The Central Electoral Committee (CEC) was under heavy internal and external political pressure to determine, openly, the results of the election. Consequently, a special commission was established to investigate the issues, complaints, and protests. However, the committee's final decision was that there was not sufficient evidence to support the charges of fraud.
After two and a half months of political chaos and social unrest, the CEC made a sudden announcement that the election results were final, which served to galvanize the negotiating politicians so that an agreement was reached, the Constitution modified, and questions concerning how to conduct future elections settled. The Ambassador at the U.S. embassy remained strongly critical of La Esperanza's weak democracy.
When Should You Say Goodbye? Counterpart Relations in Post War Reconstruction
A Japanese NGO worker Ms. Shino has been working with a government body of Kalanki in the internal conflict situation over the past 10 years to cooperate in building the capacity of the Health Ministry's training institute. Now the country's internal war has finally ceased. To some extent, the capacity of the counterpart institute has increased and is recognized by others. However, the government institute's sustainability issues are still left unsolved, and Shino is aware of her organization's limitations in further helping the institute solve such issues. On the other hand, the local NGO sector is growing, and they have approached her for possible cooperation in training. Shino tries to review and analyze what would be best for her organization to do for human development in Kalanki. Shino has to present an initial proposal to her organization's board meeting next month.
Grassroots Assistance in Rural China
Yumeko Shirooka is a consultant hired by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan to evaluate ODA activities in China. As a part of her evaluation activities, she visited a site of grassroots project in rural China. A Grassroots Assistance scheme is a part of Grants-in-Aid of Japanese Oversea Development Assistance. The main purpose of this scheme is to quickly cope with various needs of diversity in developing countries. “Rural Development Project” is located in Dan feng county of Shaanxi province, which is considered to be one of the most seriously affected areas of poverty. The project activities ranged from construction of three schools, three health centers, two rural bridges and 46 water resource facilities covering nine villages.
Yumeko was skeptical about the success of the project at first since the final report written by the local expert with photos of good-looking facilities seemed too modern to fit in rural environment. However, her site visits with extensive interviews and communication with local people started to change her mind. Now at the end of the field trip to the project sites, she was trying to come up with the analysis of what went particularly well in this project. New her challenging job was to put her observation in the most persuasive manner as an effective evaluation report.
Managing Health Project: HIV/AIDS case in Thailand
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), Thailand had a “ Project for Model Development of Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care” from 1998 to 2003, paying significant attention to “care” for HIV/AIDS, when most of the international donors focused on “prevention” in 1990s. Project aimed to develop a model to cope with HIV/AIDS at local level, based on the interaction between health administration and community. Phayao Provincial Health Office was selected to be a core counterpart for the Project, because Phayao was the province with the highest number of HIV cases per population in Thailand. Dr. Phannee directed the Phayao Provincial Health Office and was in charge of overall health issues of about 500,000 populations in Phayao Province.
Throughout the cooperation, intensive discussions took place over the desirable interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention and care between Dr. Phannee and Japanese experts, who stationed in Phayao Provincial Health Office. Although they sought to develop a model for HIV/AIDS intervention for prevention and care because there had been few precedents of such models for HIV/AIDS, they did not have a clear idea of how the model should look like nor what an appropriate model was, for improving quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS (PHA) and their families as well as for reducing new HIV infections. Whereas facing enormous needs to cope with HIV/AIDS, the Project had to go though some critical stages to decide their direction to take for 5 years.
Mr. Tani and his successor Ms. Morino, who were the program officers in charge of the Project at JICA Headquarters, had to face a hard choice between the Japanese team’s and the Thai Counterpart’s views on the best path to HIV/AIDS care and prevention. The first turning point was when a proposal to add another intervention to the Project and to change the weight of interventions was submitted by Dr. Phannee to the Japanese consultation team from Headquarters, after 1 year had past. The second point of a hard choice was at the final evaluation of the Project when there were controversial views on the Project achievements were presented by stakeholders including Thai counterparts, Japanese experts team, and the beneficiaries, namely PHA.
Mid-Term Evaluation of IT Education Project
This case will help students to evaluate the mid-term results of an education project and to determine the necessary ingredients for long term sustainability.
Students will have an opportunity to prepare a persuasive presentation to ensure the commitment of a project partner.
Dilemma of Dr. Sakura, Chief Advisor of JICA Technical Cooperation Project-Difficult Proposition of Capacity Development in the Official Development Assistance-
Dr. Sakura Fujiyama has been assigned as the Chief Advisor of “Project for the improvement of health services for children in the Pao country” She took over Dr. Yamakawa who worked as a project’s Chief Advisor in the initial stage of the project for two and a half years. The purpose of the project is to strengthen the health service management for children with the special emphasis on ownership of the Pao sides. Basic principles of the Project agreed upon between two governments are:
(1)The basic directions will be agreed upon between Japan and Pao at the onset, and the Pao side will think about what would be the best way to proceed. (2)Put more emphasis on activities in which the Pao side can do by themselves even without financial resources, by skillfully using the things and systems already available to them. (3)Implement the cost sharing policy in which 10% of the budget of each activity is expected to be covered by Pao side. (4)Promote the communication among Japanese side and the Pao side by creating the communication channels, such as through retreats.
Two years and a half have passed since the project began. During that time, many activities have been planned and implemented in collaboration with concerned parties of the MOH and Kungming and Tongking Provincial Health Offices (PHOs). Prior to the Mid-Term Evaluation, Dr. Sakura has briefly summarized what has been achieved so far by each category of works and she has now come to realize the significance and complexity of the problems, especially on "how to promote the ownership of the Pao side? " as well as "what it means to improve the management of health services? "
Is Acacia a Good Option?
Mr. Son, a farmer in Tan My District of Tan Tien Province, wonders what would be a good idea to utilize his existing forestry land for a better livelihood. He consulted with Mr. Thao, who happened to visit Mr. Son to study development potential in the area from the country’s economic development research institute. Mr. Thao gave him suggestions on the plantation of acacia species and he himself visited various places to collect relevant data and conduct a feasibility study.
HIV and AID-Related Stigma and Discrimination: Human Self-Reflection
This case encourages the learners to try self-reflection in order to explore their own stigma and discrimination which one possesses unconsciously deep inside of oneself through a personal story and through the reflections of an HIV-positive person interviewed by the author who has been struggling to promote awareness on HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. At the same time, through reflections of the protagonist, the case addresses deep insights on issues behind stigma and discrimination.