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印刷するケース・ライブラリー(ケース概要)

ケース概要

  • 英文ケース

E-1-95
Sangkuriang's Dream and Saguling Dam
毛利勝彦


This case describes a summary of the EIA studies conducted in the late 1970s for the Saguling dam project in Indonesia. The Saguling dam was constructed in the first half of the 1980s mainly for the generation of electricity, partially funded by the World Bank and Japan's OECF. The EIA studies done by the Indonesians were regarded as being satisfactory, even very successful, in the context of the developing country in the 1970s, by the donor institutions providing funds for the project. Despite this good reputation, discrepancies have emerged between what was expected to happen and what actually happened. Dr. Nakayama, a Japanese university professor, was commissioned to conduct a case study of the Saguling dam project, so that the Japanese government can draw lessons from this experiences to further improve EIA methodology and procedures for its foreign aid projects.




E-2-96
National Transport Training Center Project
-Planning project-type Technical Cooperation Project-
成田百合子


This case is based on an on-going project-type technical cooperation in the field of transport by JICA and the Philippines. The focus is on the planning stage. The proposed project is concerned with a training and research institute of transport planning and management, for which the Government of the Philippines had requested support seven years earlier. A Preliminary Survey Mission visited the country to study the existing preparations for the project, as JICA headquarters in Tokyo, to which the Mission has to report, considered that they could not start the project unless the "prerequisites" were fulfilled before the project started. The Mission members felt that it was high time to start because of the urgent needs and continued good will of Philippine counterparts to implement the project, although the prerequisites had not yet fulfilled. The cooperation for this project is included in the list for technical cooperation by JICA, following the decision by the Japanese Government, and a Preliminary Survey Mission has to suggest to JICA an outline plan for the project and what should be done afterward to implement it.




E-3-95
Mchelian Agriculture Project
藤田伸子


The purpose of this case is to show how ideas concerning project evaluation can be applied. The case is based on a JICA technical cooperation project, Kilimanjaro Agriculture Development Project in Tanzania. Readers are required to think about:

1. how to evaluate a technical cooperation project; and
2. what aspects should be examined in determining "success" of a project.

The case consists of two parts. In Part I, a young consultant is asked to join an evaluation mission for a very successful project, and she investigates the background of the project. In Part II, she leaves for the project site and finds out the real situation.




E-4-98
Let them die?
松田正巳


Professor Nakajima,Chairman of a ministry-appointed advisory panel on HIV/AIDS and a respected Japanese clinician, made the following public statement: "Spending taxpayers money to cover the medical costs of treating AIDS patients is like throwing money away. In Thailand, they pour their resources into prevention and let those who are already infected die." The statement was widely publicized by the press and so outraged AIDS victims and supporters that the Ministry of Health and Welfare dismissed Nakajima from the panel,criticizing him for his insensitivity and misunderstanding of victims of HIV infection.

Prof.Nozomi, a researcher trained in Japan, Thailand ,and the United States and currently involved in international training programs for AIDS prevention and care in Japan and Thailand, was not only offended by the insensitivity of the statement but also by the fact that the statement was grossly inaccurate. He had two major concerns about the wider effect of the statement:(1)there could be serious ramifications for the continuing debate in Japan about distributing health resources,i.e. care for the infected vs.prevention for the healthy; and(2) the complete misrepresentation of how Thailand dealt with the problems resulting from the HIV/AIDS infection and the implication that other countries,like Thailand,simply let people die who are infected, was unjust and would jeopardize valuable relationships between Japanese and Thai professionals.

These concerns created in Prof.Nozomi a crisis of conscience. He knew for a fact that Thailand's policy for handling HIV/AIDS victims was anything but insensitive. His colleagues and friends in Thailand would be offended and outraged if the Chairman's erroneous statement about their handling of the infection was not publicly corrected. However,any Japanese who criticized such a highly regarded physician in the medical society in Japan would face consequences that could severely and negatively affect his career and his standing among his peers. In the face of this dilemma,should Prof.Nozomi speak out or remain silent?




E-5-98
Managing a NGO
杉原まゆみ


Eka is a memeber of a small, newly-founded NGO called Terakoya Support that is based in Tokyo and has 40 members. The objectives of Terakoya Support are to support are to support Japanese language courses in a temple-operated school, the Myanmar Buddhist Meditation Institute(the Institute) located in Yangon,as well as to facilitate exchange programs between Myanmar and Japanese young people. Although the Institute has supported several foreign language courses, the Japanese language courses have been taught by Japanese and Myanmar volunteers. The Japanese instructors are either businessmen or their spouses who live in the capital city of Myanmar but who have no professional training in teaching languages .

At the invitation of Ayano,the founder and representative of Terakoya Support and a former instructor at the Institute, Eka and her colleague Kuwata plan to visit the Institute in order to administer proficiency tests to the students. However, when Eka sends a letter about coordinating their visit to Serita, one of the volunteer Japanese instructors at the Institute, she was told by Serita that he was not interested in outsiders meddling in the program. As Ayano had taken a new job in Botswana and was unavailable for advice and counsel, Eka is feeling lost and is not sure what to do.




E-6-98
Run Before You Get Shot Down?
田中由美子


A young Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteer(JOCV) was sent to a remote rural village in Nepal for a two-and -one -half year project. She worked with a male Nepal volunteer counterpart as a team in one of the ten village sites of the rural community development Project. The Japanese experts, JOCV team leader, NGO Director, and Nepal government counterparts involved in the Project mostly stayed in their respective offices in the small city called Pokhara and visited the villages as necessary to support the development works to be carried out by the villagers facilitated by the JOCV members and NGO voulteers.

The JOCV and NGO volunteer tried to include the villagers in the planning for community development. However, a major conflict with the village chief erupted, who evidently insisted on deciding development priorities himself. Fearing that the villagers were supporting the young project volunteers, the village chief threatened the JOCV volunteer with a gun and told her to leave the village immediately. Even though he finally calmed down and withdrew his threat, the JOCV volunteer saw difficulties ahead. Nevertheless she wanted to continue her work until her team of service was completed.




E-7-99
Treat or Retreat? - Coordinating Education Aid
小幡俊弘


Ganbari Masho, a small country in Sub-Sahara Africa, suffers from a serious shortage of primary schools. The government has tried to make the most of all possible funding resources to improve this situation, however, the result is often uncoordinated and conflicted.

Manabu Minade, an educational development specialist working for Japan's government aid agency, visits Ganbari Masho to evaluate the grant aid assistance project funded by his agency for constructing primary school buildings. As a result of his survey, Minade realizes that more coordination among aid donors is necessary to accomplish effective assistance to the schools. During his visit, Minade had an opportunity to communicate his idea about aid coordination to the Secretary of Education, an official that Minade thinks is very intelligent and effective but someone who needs to be convinced about implementing a coordination policy. Minade is not sure what his recommendations would be for establishing a meeting among donors to discuss this issue. He realizes that there are many issues which need to be considered in order for his idea to accomplish its goal.




E-8-99
Squid Politics - over tiny but attractive stone
石田健一


Dr. Misato, a professional fishery development consultant with more than ten years experience in Japanese development assistance projects, headed off for his assigned duty station. He was well prepared for the tasks and had established a good relationship with his counterparts. However, his research area was highly competitive and the target species, Argentine squid, was an important cash crop for several fishery industries. This competition created serious problems for the implementation of the scientific research projects originally planned. Misato was faced with a number of dilemmas which needed to be resolved.




E-9-99
Should NGOs go into Business Activities?
武田長久


The case is based on a Thai NGO, the Isan Foundation, established in 1986 with assistance from a Canadian NGO for the purpose of implementing participatory community development projects in northeast Thailand. With assistance from Canadian funds, projects were established between 1988 to 1993 and the intention was to continue these projects after the Canadian funds were terminated. By 1996, the NGO recognized the need to diversify their funding base, i.e. obtain funding from government sources and other donors and undertake income producing activities. It became necessary to devise a five-year plan outlining proposed activities and projecting potential funding resources.

Up to this point, the NGO had help to establish village organizations such as village credit unions and rice banks in about 100 villages. Based on these organizations, several cooperatives were created. These village community organizations had successfully raised a significant amount of money which was used to support the socio-economic activities of its members.

Mr. Somchai, the manager of the NGO revolving fund, was responsible for creating a plan for the next five years. He came up with the idea of a "People's Bank" which would centralize the financial resources of the village groups. However, in order to make his plan viable, he had to make compromises in order to address the different interests of each of the various stakeholders.




E-10-00
Shall We Still Go On? -Troubled Two Step Loan-
菅野悠紀雄


The Global Bank (GB) had extended loan packages in two successive years to the Government of the Republic of East Indies (GEI) to finance a government-sponsored, two step loan project for the support and promotion of small business enterprises. After several years, problems emerged. The arrears of the loans made by the local banks were increasing with alarming frequency. After studies, reviews and surveys were conducted, it became clear that the project had some basic flaws in its design and implementation procedures. For example, the expertise and training of the officers of the handling banks resulted in poorly managed portfolios.

In order to cope with the situation, meetings were scheduled by the GB involving representatives from various government agencies and the Bank of East Indies (BEI). A plan of action was formulated to address the problems and hopefully, improve the quality of this loan program.

In spite of the problems and the fact that it was unlikely that the action plan could remedy the situation in the near future, the GEI approached the GB with another request for a loan package (twice the amount of the original package) to fund the next phase of the project. And it seemed, even though there were enormous costs involved, the prevailing attitude of the key people who would make this decision was to move forward with the request.




E-11-01
"Fair and Honest' Elections: What Does It Mean?"
朝戸恵子


Nozomi, a Japanese graduate student majoring in Latin American politics, has volunteered to be an electoral observer during the 1994 elections in La Esperanza. Although the country had had a democratic system for more than twenty years, elections held every four years always resulted in political and social chaos. For this election, the international community was asked to send electoral observers in an effort to help minimize the disruption.

The duties and responsibilities of an electoral observer were explained to Nozomi and the other participants. They were to report any irregular events they observed at the polling places. They were not to make judgements about these events, however. She thought this would not be too hard, but once election day was under way, the reality proved to be much more of a challenge. Events which seemed normal to her were viewed as irregular or intentional fraud by other observers. As the day wore on, she became increasingly unsure about what criteria one should use. She noticed that the criteria were different for each individual observer making the judgement.

After the election, the interpretation of electoral events was widely and differently interpreted and as a result, La Esperanza once again fell into chaos and disorder. The Central Electoral Committee (CEC) was under heavy internal and external political pressure to determine, openly, the results of the election. Consequently, a special commission was established to investigate the issues, complaints, and protests. However, the committee's final decision was that there was not sufficient evidence to support the charges of fraud.

After two and a half months of political chaos and social unrest, the CEC made a sudden announcement that the election results were final, which served to galvanize the negotiating politicians so that an agreement was reached, the Constitution modified, and questions concerning how to conduct future elections settled. The Ambassador at the U.S. embassy remained strongly critical of La Esperanza's weak democracy.




E-12-02
When Should You Say Goodbye? Counterpart Relations in Post War Reconstruction
宇井志緒利


A Japanese NGO worker Ms. Shino has been working with a government body of Kalanki in the internal conflict situation over the past 10 years to cooperate in building the capacity of the Health Ministry's training institute. Now the country's internal war has finally ceased. To some extent, the capacity of the counterpart institute has increased and is recognized by others. However, the government institute's sustainability issues are still left unsolved, and Shino is aware of her organization's limitations in further helping the institute solve such issues. On the other hand, the local NGO sector is growing, and they have approached her for possible cooperation in training. Shino tries to review and analyze what would be best for her organization to do for human development in Kalanki. Shino has to present an initial proposal to her organization's board meeting next month.




E-13-02
Grassroots Assistance in Rural China
山口しのぶ


Yumeko Shirooka is a consultant hired by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan to evaluate ODA activities in China. As a part of her evaluation activities, she visited a site of grassroots project in rural China. A Grassroots Assistance scheme is a part of Grants-in-Aid of Japanese Oversea Development Assistance. The main purpose of this scheme is to quickly cope with various needs of diversity in developing countries. “Rural Development Project” is located in Dan feng county of Shaanxi province, which is considered to be one of the most seriously affected areas of poverty. The project activities ranged from construction of three schools, three health centers, two rural bridges and 46 water resource facilities covering nine villages.

Yumeko was skeptical about the success of the project at first since the final report written by the local expert with photos of good-looking facilities seemed too modern to fit in rural environment. However, her site visits with extensive interviews and communication with local people started to change her mind. Now at the end of the field trip to the project sites, she was trying to come up with the analysis of what went particularly well in this project. New her challenging job was to put her observation in the most persuasive manner as an effective evaluation report.




E-14-02
Managing Health Project: HIV/AIDS case in Thailand
松浦由佳子


Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), Thailand had a “ Project for Model Development of Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care” from 1998 to 2003, paying significant attention to “care” for HIV/AIDS, when most of the international donors focused on “prevention” in 1990s. Project aimed to develop a model to cope with HIV/AIDS at local level, based on the interaction between health administration and community. Phayao Provincial Health Office was selected to be a core counterpart for the Project, because Phayao was the province with the highest number of HIV cases per population in Thailand. Dr. Phannee directed the Phayao Provincial Health Office and was in charge of overall health issues of about 500,000 populations in Phayao Province.

Throughout the cooperation, intensive discussions took place over the desirable interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention and care between Dr. Phannee and Japanese experts, who stationed in Phayao Provincial Health Office. Although they sought to develop a model for HIV/AIDS intervention for prevention and care because there had been few precedents of such models for HIV/AIDS, they did not have a clear idea of how the model should look like nor what an appropriate model was, for improving quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS (PHA) and their families as well as for reducing new HIV infections. Whereas facing enormous needs to cope with HIV/AIDS, the Project had to go though some critical stages to decide their direction to take for 5 years.

Mr. Tani and his successor Ms. Morino, who were the program officers in charge of the Project at JICA Headquarters, had to face a hard choice between the Japanese team’s and the Thai Counterpart’s views on the best path to HIV/AIDS care and prevention. The first turning point was when a proposal to add another intervention to the Project and to change the weight of interventions was submitted by Dr. Phannee to the Japanese consultation team from Headquarters, after 1 year had past. The second point of a hard choice was at the final evaluation of the Project when there were controversial views on the Project achievements were presented by stakeholders including Thai counterparts, Japanese experts team, and the beneficiaries, namely PHA.




E-15-05
Mid-Term Evaluation of IT Education Project
木全洋一郎


This case will help students to evaluate the mid-term results of an education project and to determine the necessary ingredients for long term sustainability.

Students will have an opportunity to prepare a persuasive presentation to ensure the commitment of a project partner.




E-16-05
Dilemma of Dr. Sakura, Chief Advisor of JICA Technical Cooperation Project-Difficult Proposition of Capacity Development in the Official Development Assistance-
間宮志のぶ


Dr. Sakura Fujiyama has been assigned as the Chief Advisor of “Project for the improvement of health services for children in the Pao country” She took over Dr. Yamakawa who worked as a project’s Chief Advisor in the initial stage of the project for two and a half years. The purpose of the project is to strengthen the health service management for children with the special emphasis on ownership of the Pao sides. Basic principles of the Project agreed upon between two governments are:

(1)The basic directions will be agreed upon between Japan and Pao at the onset, and the Pao side will think about what would be the best way to proceed. (2)Put more emphasis on activities in which the Pao side can do by themselves even without financial resources, by skillfully using the things and systems already available to them. (3)Implement the cost sharing policy in which 10% of the budget of each activity is expected to be covered by Pao side. (4)Promote the communication among Japanese side and the Pao side by creating the communication channels, such as through retreats.

Two years and a half have passed since the project began. During that time, many activities have been planned and implemented in collaboration with concerned parties of the MOH and Kungming and Tongking Provincial Health Offices (PHOs). Prior to the Mid-Term Evaluation, Dr. Sakura has briefly summarized what has been achieved so far by each category of works and she has now come to realize the significance and complexity of the problems, especially on "how to promote the ownership of the Pao side? " as well as "what it means to improve the management of health services? "



E-17-06
Is Acacia a Good Option?
持田智男



Mr. Son, a farmer in Tan My District of Tan Tien Province, wonders what would be a good idea to utilize his existing forestry land for a better livelihood. He consulted with Mr. Thao, who happened to visit Mr. Son to study development potential in the area from the country’s economic development research institute. Mr. Thao gave him suggestions on the plantation of acacia species and he himself visited various places to collect relevant data and conduct a feasibility study.



E-18-07
HIV and AID-Related Stigma and Discrimination: Human Self-Reflection
斉藤千佳



This case encourages the learners to try self-reflection in order to explore their own stigma and discrimination which one possesses unconsciously deep inside of oneself through a personal story and through the reflections of an HIV-positive person interviewed by the author who has been struggling to promote awareness on HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. At the same time, through reflections of the protagonist, the case addresses deep insights on issues behind stigma and discrimination.

  • 和文ケース

J-1-98
撃たれる前に逃げよ?
田中由美子


 若い日本人女性の海外ボランティアが、2年半のプロジェクトに従事するためネパールの僻村に派遣された。ネパール人の男性職員/開発ワーカーとチームを組んで、村落開発プロジェクトの対象となる10ヵ村の中のある村で活動に当たった。プロジェクトには、日本人専門家、海外ボランティア、現地NGOの開発ワーカー、ネパール政府のカウンターパートが関与している。首都カトマンズから200km西方にあるポカラという町にプロジェクト事務所が設けられている。そこを中心に、日本人専門家とNGOのディレクターや政府カウンターパートが、必要に応じて村に足を運び、村に住み込んで活動している日本人海外ボランティアと現地NGOの開発ワーカーの支援をする。村民が参加型で行う村落開発事業を推進するのがプロジェクトの目的である。

 海外ボランティアとNGOの開発ワーカーは、村人に村落開発事業に加わってもらおうと働きかけたが、開発に関する優先事項の決定権は自分にあると主張する村の有力者との間で深刻な対立が生じる。この有力者は、村人が若い海外ボランティアの側に付くことを危惧するあまり、この女性ボランティアに銃口を向けて、すぐに村から出て行けと脅した。やがて有力者は怒りを静め、出ていけと言わなくなったが、女性ボランティアは、今後大変な困難に遭遇するのではないかと恐れた。それでも任期終了まで何とか仕事を続けたいという気持ちに変わりはなかった。




J-2-99
対応か?撤退か?:教育援助協調-日本の無償資金協力による小学校建設プロジェクトの現場から-
小幡俊弘


 サブ・サハラ・アフリカの小国「ガンバリ・マショ」では小学校の不足が深刻な問題となっていた。ガンバリ・マショ国政府では、外国援助機関から可能な資金の導入を図ることにより、状況の改善を図ろうと努力していたが、その多くは内部調整の悪さから、効果的な成果が上がるまでには至っていなかった。そんなある日、日本の政府開発援助機関JAIDより、日本の無償資金協力により建設された小学校の評価を行うとし、若手専門家の皆手学が派遣されて来た。皆手は、評価調査のため数多くの学校現場を視察し、また、関係機関との意見交換を進めるつれ、小学校建設に対する資金協力を効果的・効率的に行うためには、ドナーと同国教育省の間での密接な情報交換に基づく調整が実施されるべきだと感じ始める。同国での調査も大詰めの頃、皆手は援助調整について自分の考えを教育省次官に伝える絶好の機会を得た。皆手には、同次官は実行力があり、聡明な人物と思え、彼の考える援助調整会議を実現するための有力な支援者になる可能性が高いと思えるのである。皆手は、この国の現状を踏まえた上で、教育分野の援助調整の必要性を、説得力をもって次官に説明するための準備を進めた。




J-3-00
それでも続けなければならない理由-混迷するツー・ステップ・ローン
菅野悠紀雄


 グローバル銀行は、中小企業の振興及び援助を目的とする、政府管掌のツー・ステップ・ローンプロジェクト(SEDP)に資金協力するために東インド国政府に対して二次にわたり借款を供与してきた。数年後、問題が顕在化した。貸出銀行の融資に関し債務の延滞が驚くべき割合で増加したのである。実態調査、内部の見直しさらには検討が行われた結果、このプロジェクトには計画及び実施において種々の欠陥があることが明らかとなった。たとえば、貸出銀行職員の専門的能力の不足及び訓練の不徹底により、融資業務の質は非常に低かった。

 この状況に対応するため、グローバル銀行は政府各省庁、東インド銀行の代表との会議を開いた。かかる問題に対処し、願わくは融資業務の質を改善するため、行動計画が策定された。

 SEDPに係る問題が深刻であり、また、行動計画によっても近い将来に事態が改善することは見込めないにもかかわらず、東インド国政府は、グローバル銀行に対しプロジェクト次期フェーズの資金として借款を要請してきた。次期フェーズは成果に対して過大な費用が見込まれるにもかかわらず、この決定に関わる関係者の態度は総じてこの要請に好意的であった。




J-4-98
死ぬがままに?
松田正己


 厚生省が任命したHIV/AIDS検討会の席上、その座長を務める高名な日本人医師である中島教授が、以下のような発言を行った。「納税者のお金をAIDS患者治療の医療費に充てるのは金を捨てるようなものだ。タイでは予防に財源を投入しており、感染者は死になさいと言っている」。この発言はマスコミによって広く伝えられ、AIDSの犠牲者や支援者の逆鱗に触れた。そのため、厚生省はHIV感染者に対し無神経、無理解であると中島氏を批判し、座長を解任した。

 日本、タイ、アメリカで教育を受け、現在は日本及びタイでAIDS予防及びケアの国際協力に関わっている研究者、西郷教授は、発言の無神経さだけでなくあまりに不正確である事実に怒りを覚えた。彼は発言の広範な影響について以下の2点を主に懸念している。(1)医療費の配分、すなわち感染者のケアか健康な人の予防かについて日本で続いている議論に関連し、重大な波及効果をもたらしうる。(2)HIV/AIDS感染により生じる問題に対するタイ政府の対処方法が全く誤って伝えられ、タイなどの他の国々が感染者を単に死ぬに任せていると受け取られることは不当で、日本とタイの専門家との有益な関係を脅かす可能性がある。

 こうした懸念により西郷教授は良心の危機に陥った。教授は、実際にはタイのHIV/AIDS患者への対処方法が無神経とはほど遠いことを承知していた。感染者への対応に関する中島座長の誤りだらけの発言が公に訂正されなければ、タイにいる彼の仲間や友人は感情を害し激怒するだろう。しかし、このように日本の医療関係者から高く評価される医師を批判した場合、その日本人はキャリアと仲間の立場にひどいダメージを受けかねない。こうしたジレンマに直面し、西郷教授は公言するのか、それとも沈黙するのか。




J-5-06
「突然の落雷」か「避雷針」か―韓国の金融危機はなぜ起こってしまったのか―
近藤久洋


 
 韓国は先進国になるという目標のため、「世界化(Globalisation)」戦略として金融市場の大胆な自由化を行ってきたが、結果的に金融危機の発生を許し、未曾有の被害を引き起こす。「職務放棄によって国家に被害をもたらした容疑」により、当時の副首相兼財政経済部長官は検察から起訴され、公判中である。韓国では、危機は外部的な要因のために引き起こされ、政府としては防止が困難だったとする「突然の落雷」説と、政府は避雷針として危機管理すべきであった「避雷針」説があり、前者は無罪を主張し、後者は有罪を主張していた。被告は、有罪か無罪かの問いの根底にある「金融危機をもたらした要因は何か」、「誰が責任を負うべきなのか」という問いについて、財閥・商業銀行・労働者・大統領・アメリカの問題点を指摘しながら自問自答を続ける。
 
 このケースでは、被告が有罪・無罪のどちらであるかを検討するため、金融危機の要因について討議を行い、ありうる回答を模索する(現実では、被告は裁判で無罪判決を受けている)。なお、有罪・無罪の判定は、必ずしも法律論に基づく必要はなく、対象学生の関心を照らして、政策論・役割論から行うことを想定している。
 
 なお、このケースでは、金泳三政権下での金融危機発生プロセスを扱い、金大中政権での事後処理は対象としない。



J-6-06
―一人を助けるのか?多くを救うのか?―人道支援医療スタッフのジレンマ
平野美樹子


 
 Z国は隣国W国およびX国からの数十万人の難民を抱えていた。1994年、W国およびX国の大統領が乗った飛行機の撃墜を契機に、W国において2つの部族の対立が激化し、ジェノサイド(大量殺戮)がおこったのである。おびただしい数の難民が、Z国を含む周辺諸国に流れ込んだ。その難を逃れた難民の長期の滞在は、少なからず地域の不安定要因ともなることから、Z国政府は常に頭を悩ませていた。この状況は数年来続いていたが、ある日突然状況は一変した。X国とW国の政治的緊張が高まり、同じく隣国のX国の難民キャンプで暮らしていたW国難民の大規模な帰還を引き起こしたのである。Z国政府は、そのこととW国の政治情勢の安定を理由に、W国難民およそ50万人の帰還を決定したのである。

 Z国主導でおこなわれた難民帰還の中で、人道援助団体は軍の監視の下、制約された中で活動することになった。その中で人道援助団体の一人であるA子は、夕闇迫る中、一人の年老いた難民の女性にであった。人道を基盤とした行動規範に従って彼女を救うべきか?しかしそれは、援助団体の活動の全面停止といった事態につながる危険性もある。では見捨てるのか? A子はこのジレンマをどう解決すればよいのだろうか。



J-7-07
さて、どうしようか?現場とともに・・・
長須美和子



 公衆衛生の専門家として、32歳の日本女性・メイワがあるアジアの国に派遣された。最終目標は、現地の精米工場で働く人たちの職場改善である。しかし、現場のフィールドワークを通して、精米工場が抱える様々な課題とそれに関わる現地の人々の状況をふまえて、二年間の任期中に何を行うのか。まずプロジェクトの目的であるワークショップの開催に向け、現地の良好事例から専門家としてチェックリストに盛り込むべき伝えたいテーマを模索する。



J-8-07
多文化共生と自治体戦略
今西佳子



 4町1村が合併して誕生した三崎市は、人口7万人であるが、市内や近隣市で働く日系南米人が多く、外国人登録者数は、人口の約5%、約3500人に上るようになっていた。市役所には、医療や教育問題で、毎日大勢の外国人が詰めかけ、職員は対応に大わらわだった。まちづくり推進課の山田課長は、外国人住民が抱える問題を洗い出し、必要な施策を行うようにという市長の指示を受け、市単独事業として公立学校への日本語指導員の派遣、日本語教室の開設等を行った。しかしながら、これらの施策は、外国人住民の数を増やすことにもつながり、市内の公立小学校では、外国人子弟の人数が前年の倍になるところもでてきた。それに伴い、市の財政負担や職員の負担も増えつつあった。そのような状況の中、市長は、外国人住民に対するスタンスをもっと明確にし、もう一歩踏み込んだものとするため、次年度の総合計画に「多文化共生のまちづくり」を目標に掲げた。また、「多文化共生推進プラン」の策定をするよう山田課長に指示した。山田課長は、プランの骨子をつくるにあたって、どのような観点から方向性を示していくべきか悩んでいた。



J-9-09
みんなの音楽会は成功するのか?
福井裕子



 2008年4月、はんしん市の人事異動により、宮沢典子(28)が生涯学習課に配属になった。はんしん市は、市長の意向で、文化芸術にも力をいれており、秋には市民向けのイベントが盛りだくさんである。宮沢は、市民ボランティアが主体となって運営する「みんなの音楽会」を担当することとなった。4月、第1回の委員会を開催し、順調に進みだしたようにみえたが、参加団体や音楽会会場キララの担当者、近所のスーパーなど、それぞれの立場から様々な意見や要望、苦情がでてきて、音楽祭の企画運営がなかなか進まない。そんな中、執行委員長の小谷が、参加団体からの無理な要望やキララとの交渉の難しさなどのストレスから倒れてしまった。音楽会開催まであと2ヶ月をきっている。音楽会は無事成功するのか?